Related to the previous post is this article:
Ghazal, Amal. 2014. An Ottoman Pasha and the End of Empire: Sulayman al-Baruni and the Networks of Islamic Reform [باشا عثماني و نهاية الامبراطورية: سليمان الباروني و شبكات الاصلاح الاسلامي]. In Global Muslims in the Age of Steam and Print, eds. J. Gelvin & N. Green. Berkeley: University of California Press. 40–58.
From the article:
“In a photograph taken in 1913, Sulayman al-Baruni (1872/73-1940), a native of the Nafusa Mountains in what is now Libya, has donned an Ottoman army uniform and a fez and poses with an Ottoman officer. His appearance and his career epitomized the cosmopolitan Muslim reformer at the beginning of the twentieth century. Educated in Tunisia, Egypt, and Algeria, elected to the Ottoman parliament in Istanbul, dispatched to Tripolitania to fight Italian invaders, and spending the end of his life in exile in Oman with intermittent visits to Baghdad, al-Baruni had a career resembling that of many of his contemporaries who zigzagged the Ottoman realm, defended its borders, and then watched as their world crumbled into fragments. But al-Baruni was distinctive among Ottoman officials. He was a member of the minority Ibadi sect who turned into a modernist reformer, a pan-Ottomanist, and, later on, a pan-Arabist.”